Back pain: causes, classifications, treatment and prevention

back pain in men

Lower back pain at least once experienced by many inhabitants of the planet. According to statistics, only 10% of the population does not know what lower back pain is. In recent years, back pain in the lumbar region began to appear in patients at a young age, not only after intense physical exertion, but also with various diseases.

pain in the lumbar region


Individual cases of back pain are usually harmless. Frequent hypothermia, hard work and heavy lifting can produce destructive changes in the spine. The appearance of a pain syndrome is a sign of the development of a pathological process that needs to be treated in order to preserve full motor function.

Finding out the type and intensity will help figure out why the discomfort is occurring. An accurate definition of the pathology will help prescribe an effective treatment to eliminate the pain syndrome.

Depending on the duration of exposure, back pain is:

  1. acute - occurs suddenly, is accompanied by high intensity, the duration of the symptom does not exceed thirty days, often has a painful character;
  2. chronic - has been worrying the patient for more than six months, the pain is constant, mild, signals about chronic processes in the body;
  3. periodic - appears at the stage of exacerbation, with the advent of the period of remission it completely disappears;
  4. Constant pain is accompanied by many conditions that require immediate treatment. This can be pathologies of the spine, nervous system, vascular damage and oncological neoplasms.

A person may feel pain in one point or throughout the back. Depending on the localization, local pain can be distinguished, not going beyond the boundaries of the lesion, or generalized, covering the entire lower back.

Sometimes the pain spreads to the lower extremity, causing a forced posture when moving. This symptom occurs with severe diseases of the spine. The reflection of pain occurs with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract or gynecological problems.


Severe back pain after prolonged physical exertion can be attributed to a non-pathological etiology. The accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles has a painful effect that disappears on its own after a few days.

Main reasons:

  • Dystrophic changes in the cartilage tissue of the vertebrae of the lumbosacral region (osteochondrosis) are complicated by the growth of bone tissue and loss of elasticity of the flattened cartilage. Back pain is aggravated when the disc is deformed, a complication of which is a herniated disc. This condition causes increased pain that radiates to the hip and sometimes the ankle.
  • Traumatic injury from impact or fall.
  • Shortening of a limb is observed with coxarthrosis of the second and third degrees, after trauma or surgery, individual characteristics at birth and high-grade scoliosis.
  • Hypothermia leads to myositis. Inflammatory phenomena in the muscle fibers cause widespread persistent pain.
  • Radiculitis is a neurological pathology resulting from inflammation of the root of one of the spinal nerves. Sudden sharp pains pierce the patient, causing him to bend over.
  • Scoliotic curvature of the spine.
  • Thrombophlebitis is a lesion of the vascular wall with the formation of a thrombus, with this pathology the pain effect is observed even in the lower extremity.
  • Advanced forms of arteriosclerosis with circulatory disorders.
  • Inflammatory diseases of the kidneys.
  • Pathology of the gynecological sphere, pains arise in the lower abdomen and spread to the lower back.
  • Hormonal disorders in the body in women during menopause.
  • Inflammation of the prostate in men.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Infectious diseases: tuberculosis, brucellosis and some others.
  • Pancreatitis, cholecystitis provoke reflected pain in the back.
  • Malignant neoplasms in the lumbosacral region or abdominal cavity.
severe back pain

diagnostic measures

In order to permanently reduce pain, it is important to understand why the lower back hurts. The diagnosis should be carried out by an experienced doctor. At the reception, an anamnesis of the disease is taken with listening to complaints and clarifying the patient's heredity.

Visualization and palpation are performed to identify deformed areas on the spine and to locate the most painful area in the lower back.

To confirm acceptance, the following procedures are performed:

  1. laboratory analysis of blood and urine to determine possible inflammation in the body;
  2. biochemical blood test for signs of a possible rheumatological factor;
  3. an X-ray examination of the spine will determine the presence of a hernia or protrusion;
  4. Ultrasound examination of vessels and organs of the small pelvis;
  5. computed tomography of the spine;
  6. if necessary, an examination by an infectiologist, rheumatologist, phthisiologist or gynecologist will be ordered.


Taking painkillers gives a short-term effect, after which the lower back pain returns. Therapeutic measures should consist of a complex of procedures for main and auxiliary treatment.

A sudden seizure requires immediate help. Steps to alleviate the condition:

  • take an anesthetic;
  • Tightly wrap the lumbar region back to create compression on the sore spot.
  • Contact a doctor for qualified help.

If there is no accurate diagnosis at the time of acute pain, it is forbidden to warm the sore lower back so that the inflammation does not increase. It is not recommended to conduct a session of therapeutic massage and manual therapy during an exacerbation.


  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs relieve back pain and reduce inflammation by regulating body temperature. Only a doctor can prescribe medication. The uncontrolled intake of non-hormonal painkillers leads to irritation of the gastric mucosa. Taking a drug that inhibits the secretion of gastric acid half an hour before NSAIDs prevents a pathological condition.
  2. Glucocorticosteroids are prescribed for severe inflammatory reactions.
  3. Diuretics reduce swelling by removing excess fluid, which reduces pain.
  4. Muscle relaxants relieve spasms and relax skeletal muscles.
  5. Chondroprotectors to prevent destruction in the spine.
  6. Antibiotics for inflammation of the internal organs. This pharmacological group disturbs the balance of the intestinal flora. Probiotics can help prevent dysbiosis.
  7. To strengthen the walls of blood vessels.

local treatment

Drugs intended for local treatment will help speed up pain relief. Ointments and creams for external use may contain active substances: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory painkillers, viper, cobra, viper, scorpion venom.

Medicated plasters are comfortable to use throughout the day. Pepper patch is glued directly to the lower back, within a few hours a uniform therapeutic effect on the affected area will appear.

Kinesio taping is a form of pain relief. Taping has an immediate effect, when done correctly it can stay on the skin for up to 5 days and provides lasting pain relief.

Orthopedic products mandate the wearing of a rigid lumbosacral brace. The bandage is designed for static loads, supports the lumbar spine and relieves compression pain. With sciatica, warming corsets with the hair of a dog, camel, llama are prescribed.

physical therapy

Phonophoresis with lidocaine provides rapid relief of the symptom due to the rapid penetration of a strong anesthetic into the deep subcutaneous layers. The safe method does not burden the gastrointestinal tract, which is an additional advantage.

Massage is effective in a pain-free period. After the course, blood circulation improves, muscles are tightened, mobility in the lumbar zone improves.

Acupuncture allows acupuncture to act on specific points for the purpose of treatment and prevention. Kuznetsov's applicator is great for home use. Plastic needles increase blood flow and trigger natural pain relief processes.

Magnetotherapy is used to treat many diseases, including osteochondrosis, vascular pathologies, gynecological areas. The pulsed current penetrates 7 cm under the skin and reaches damaged areas. The therapeutic effect is cumulative, achieved at the end of the first course and lasts until the next session.

Back pain in the lumbar region


To keep the lower back healthy, you need to follow the well-known rules:

  1. lead an active lifestyle;
  2. Avoid heavy loads in professional activities, sports training and weight lifting.
  3. put on a lumbosacral corset in case of dynamic loads with spinal tension;
  4. wear orthotics to provide cushioning while walking;
  5. Eat right and monitor your weight so that extra pounds do not contribute to the development of additional diseases.
  6. Get medical advice if you have any suspicious symptoms.